Physics carbon dating

23 Dec

Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life.It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen.They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen.The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is 4, while 2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes.The three relatively well-known allotropes of carbon are amorphous carbon, graphite, and diamond.Once considered exotic, fullerenes are nowadays commonly synthesized and used in research; they include buckyballs, The amorphous form is an assortment of carbon atoms in a non-crystalline, irregular, glassy state, not held in a crystalline macrostructure.The electronegativity of carbon is 2.5, significantly higher than the heavier group 14 elements (1.8–1.9), but close to most of the nearby nonmetals as well as some of the second- and third-row transition metals.

Graphite is a good electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical conductivity.It bonds readily with other small atoms including other carbon atoms, and is capable of forming multiple stable covalent bonds with suitable, multivalent atoms.Carbon is known to form almost ten million different compounds, a large majority of all chemical compounds.The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil, and methane clathrates.Carbon forms a vast number of compounds, more than any other element, with almost ten million compounds described to date, The allotropes of carbon include graphite, one of the softest known substances, and diamond, the hardest naturally occurring substance.